Characteristics: Rainfall is very low-, + 25 cm / year Speed-faster evaporation of water from precipitation Very low-humidity The temperature difference during the day-denganmalamharisangattinggi (siangdapat reached 45 C, nights can drop to 0 C) -The land is barren because it is not capable of storing water Biotic environment: - Flora: plants that grow are plants that can
adapt to dry areas (plants serofit) eg cactus, or no leaves and roots are long and have a network to store water. - Fauna: large animals that live in the desert are generally capable of
save water, such as camels, while for small animals
such as lizards, snakes, mice, ants, generally only active life in
morning, in the summer they live in holes.
2. Grassland Biomes Grassland biome extends from the tropics to temperate regions, such as ngaria, Southern Russia, Central Asia, South America, Australia. Characteristics: -Rainfall between 25 - 50 cm / year, in some grassland areas hajannya rainfall can reach 100 cm / year. -Relatively low rainfall falls irregularly. -Irregular rain fall causes the porosity and lack of good drainage so the plants difficult to get water. Biotic environment: - Flora: plants are able to adapt to areas with
porosity and good drainage is less grass, although there are other plants that live in addition to grass, but because they constitute the dominant vegetation so-called grasslands. The name prairie diverse as the South Russian steppes, puzta in Hungary, prairie in North America and Pampa in Argentina. - Fauna: bison and wild horses (mustangs) in America, elephants and giraffes in Africa, sheep and kangaroos diAustralia. Carnivores: lions, wolves, wild dogs, cheetahs. 4. Tropical Forest Biomes Tropical forest biome is a biome that has a diversity of plants and animals of the most high. Includes watershed-Orinaco Amazon, Central America, large parts of Southeast Asia and Papua New Guinea, and Congo basin in Africa. Characteristics: Bulk high-hajannya, evenly distributed throughout the year, which is between 200-225 cm / year. -The sun shines all year round. -From one month to another month of relatively small changes in temperature. -Under the tree canopy or hood, dark all day, so there is no change in temperature between day and night. - Flora: the biorna tropical forests there are hundreds of species of plants. The main trees can reach a height of 20-40 m, with leafy branches to form a hood or kanopi.Tumbuhan encountered are typical lianas and epiphytes. Liana is a plant that spreads on the surface of the forest, for example: rattan. Epiphyte is a plant attached to the tree-trunks, and not harm the tree, for example: Orchid, Bird Nest nails. - Fauna: in the hood is enough sunlight, the day the lives of animals that are diurnal animals are active during the day, the area under the canopy and the base region the lives of animals that are nokfurnal the animals are active at night : owls, pigs, jungle cats, leopard.
5. Forest Season In the tropics, in addition to the tropical forests there are also forests of the season. Plant traits that make up the formation of monsoon forest: Trees resistant to drought and tropofit including plants, meaning that adapts to the dry and wet conditions during the dry season (dry), the leaves wither, on the contrary during the rainy season, heavy leaves. Forests regular season are named according to
-Dominant plants, for example: teak forests, forest angsana. In Indonesia, the season can be found in forest areas of Central Java and East Java.
-Fauna which are found deer, wild boar, tiger.
Monsoon forest has characteristics as follows; the trees less frequently, has a height of 12 -35 m, deciduous leaves in the dry season, samples of teak forests in Central Java and East Java. 6. Forest Moss Forest mosses are found on the slopes or mountain which lies at an elevation above the upper limit of water vapor condensation. Called moss forest as the dominant vegetation is moss plants. Moss that grows not only in permakean soil and rocks, but they also cover the trunks of woody trees. So in the forest moss, moss that grows not only alone, but a lot of forest trees covered with moss. Throughout the day almost always wet due to high humidity and low temperatures cause moisture constantly.
7. Autumn Forest Biomes Characteristic are the deciduous forest biome vegetation during the winter, the leaves wither. This biome can be found in the United States, Western Europe, East Asia, and Chile. Characteristics: - Rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year, 75 - 100 cm / year. - Having four seasons: summer, winter, autumn and spring - Diversity of plant species is lower than the tropical forest biome.
Summer in the deciduous forest biome, solar radiation energy received quite high, as well as precipitation (rainfall) and humidity. This condition causes the tall trees grow well, but light can still penetrate to the base, because the foliage is so dense growth. Consumers who are in this area are insects, birds, squirrels, and raccoons are animals countryman mongoose / musang.Pada the eve of the winter, solar radiation began to decrease, subu began to fall. Plants began to be difficult to get water so the leaves turn red, brown last fall, so the season was called gugur.Pada during the winter season, do not plant bare and fotosentesis activities. Some types of animals do hibernate (sleep in the winter). Towards summer, the temperature rises, snow melts, the plant began to leaf back (spring) so-called spring. 8. Forest Biomes Taiga / Forest Homogeneous Biome is mostly found in the area between the subtropical to the polar regions, such as in Scandinavia, Russia, Siberia, Alaska, Canada. The characteristics of taiga forest biome: The difference between summer temperatures and winter is quite high, at the high summer temperatures, at very low winter temperatures. Plant growth occurs in the summer which lasts between 3 to 6 months. -Flora is a typical needle-leaved tree / conifer trees, conifer trees are examples merkusii Pinus (pine). Diversity of plants in the taiga biome is low, almost uniform vegetation, the dominant conifer trees because of almost uniformly, the forest is called homogeneous forest. Green vegetation all year round, even in winter with very low temperatures. -The fauna found in this area are black bear, take, wolves and birds that migrate tropical stricken area when winter arrives. Some types of animals such as squirrels and other small mammals and hibernate during the winter. 9. Forest Biomes Tundra This biome is located in the Arctic environment so that its climate is polar climate. The term tundra means treeless terrain, vegetation dominated by mosses and lichens, other vegetation is grass and a few small flowering plants. Characteristics: Solar radiation energy received little, very long winter can last for 9 months with a dark atmosphere. The summer lasts for 3 months, this is when the vegetation is growing. Fauna typical of the tundra biome is "Muskoxem" (bison disgorge thick) and Reindeer / Caribou (reindeer). -Dominant flora is Sphagnum, lichen, plants seeds of annuals, timber plants are short, and grass. In general, vegetation is able to adapt to cold conditions. 10. Mangrove Forest / Mangrove Mangroves / mangroves are found along a sloping beach in the tropics and subtropics. The dominant vegetation is mangrove trees (Rhizophora sp), so the other name is a mangrove forest, mangroves are found also in addition to Wood Fire tree (Avicennia) and Bogem trees (Bruguiera). Characteristics: Levels of salt-water and high ground. O2-content water and low tanahaya. -At high tide, flooding the environment, at low tide and herlumpur muddy environment. -With high salinity conditions, leading to plant mangroves - difficult to absorb water even though the environment around a lot of water, this situation is known as physiological drought. To adjust with the mangrove environment has a thick and rigid leaves, covered with cuticle so as to prevent the evaporation that is too big. To adjust to the low O2 levels, mangrove plants have roots that function to absorb O2 breath directly from the air. So that new individuals are not swept away by water currents due to tides and tidal mangrove especially on we find a phenomenon known by the name of which means it is berkecambahnya VIVIPARI seeds while seeds are still present in the fruit, not the date of the parent tree, which sometimes can form roots times can reach 1 meter in length. If the seeds have germinated earlier then separated from the parent tree with long roots that can be embedded deep enough in the mud, so it will not interfere with water flow occurring in the movement of ups and downs. The mangrove forests in Indonesia are along the east coast of Sumatra, the coast west and south along the coast of Borneo and New Guinea, on the island of Java, a rather extensive mangrove forest remaining around Segara Anakan near Cilacap which is the estuary of the river Citanduy. The types of animals that can be found in the mangrove environment is mainly fish and animals reptiles (crocodiles, monitor lizards) and birds that nest on the mangrove trees.
3. Biomes Sabana Savanna biome is grassland with trees interspersed by a mob. Based on the type of plants are arranged, savannas are divided into two, namely the savannas of pure and mixed savanna. - Sabana pure: when the trees are arranged consists of only one plant species only. - Sabana mixture: when the trees consist of a mixture of constituent-type tree species.
We meet in the forest areas kemaraunya long season with little rainfall, examples such as in Baluran East Java, West Nusa Tenggara. The characteristics of the savanna, among others: 1.Bersuhu hot throughout the year 2.Hujan occur seasonally, and became an important factor for the formation of the savanna
- Types of animals that live in the savanna areas are herbifora and karnifora example: horses, zebras, leopards, lions, and coyotes.
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